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middle colonies demographics

December 29, 2020

Deep water allowed for numerous entries … While the Middle Colonies had far more industry than the Southern Colonies, it still did not rival the industry of New England. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. All boys learned a skill or trade. There was a brisk business in trade. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. [20], Labor was always in short supply. 1610 350 (all in Virginia) 1620 2,302 (Virginia and Plymouth Plantation) 1630 4,646 1640 26,634 Governor William Tryon and all royal officials were forced from the colony on October 19, 1775. These colonies were the Province of New Hampshire, the Providence of Massachusetts Bay, the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and the Connecticut Colony. The lumber and shipbuilding industries enjoyed success in the Middle Colonies, and Pennsylvania saw moderate success in the textile and iron industry. Similarities between north and south colonies America is considered as a land of diversity and peace since it was established, the diversity and peace is evident during the period when the first English settlers came to America . HOME - HISTORY MAPS - American COLONIES: POPULATION 1775. [16] Broad navigable rivers of relaxed current like the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, and the Hudson River attracted diverse business. The Southern Region, also known as the Chesapeake Colonies, included the Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The middle colonies were enriched by the culture of people from all over Europe, including Quakers, Scots, Irish, Dutch, French, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, and more. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. The New England colonies consisted of Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. The first Dutch settlements in the New York area first appeared around 1613. The British captured much of the area in its war with the Dutch around 1664, and the majority of the conquered land became the Province of New York. Except for the Dutch in New York, the English population had managed to maintain or impose their institutions on all other competing cultures. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania. Demographics/population characteristics The population of Delaware was not extremely different, the colonies consisted of English, Dutch, and Swedish settlers.The majority of the colony spoke English. [20], Both William Penn and the Lords Baltimore encouraged Irish Protestant immigration, hoping they could obtain indentured servants to work on their estates and on colonial developments. They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted American Indians. Colonial Demographics • Define demographics: • List the key measures of demographics: • Study this chart and the resources noted in the textbook. Small congregations of Dutch Mennonites, French Huguenots, German Baptists, and Portuguese Jews joined larger established congregations of Dutch Reformed, Lutherans, Quakers, and Anglicans to create a unique religious society. By 1780, about 17% of the population in New York were descendants of Dutch settlers; the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Africans. In 1665, the Concession and Agreement was written in an effort to entice settlers to New Jersey. The Middle Colonies also raised livestock and exported beef and pork. The chart below shows the total population of Britain’s colonies from the founding of Jamestown, Va., in 1607 to the 1790 census, the first census of the U.S. government. The Scots-Irish also began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after 1717. As the colonies were established throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the population grew immensely, starting at just 2,000 people and rising to over 2 million. This coupled with religious freedom gave more options to immigrants who were migrating from Europe. In the middle colonies, where, according to the Gazette, about half the adults could sign their names, colonial leaders agreed that education was important but were not concerned with providing it. [9] On July 2, 1776, New Jersey enacted the New Jersey State Constitution, soon after having empowered delegates to the Continental Congress, on June 21, to join in a declaration of independence. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. This essay presents an overview of the diversity of the religious experience of the inhabitants of the Middle Colonies between 1680 and 1730, largely in terms of denominations broadly defined. The lack of a standardized government sponsored church led the Middle Colonies to be more religiously diverse than the other American colonial regions. Thus, the definition of the Middle Colonies sometimes changed and overlapped with Rhode Island's colonial boundaries. *The Middle Colonies were known as the "breadbasket" because of the large amounts barley, rye, and other grains that were grown there.The Middle Colonies produced more food than the New England or Southern Colonies. Indentured servitude was especially common in the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the eighteenth century, though fewer worked in agriculture. On April 15, 1702, Queen Anne united West and East Jersey into one Royal Colony, the Province of New Jersey. The religion of the Middle Colonies, as one would expect, was diverse. When the Duke of York James II became the King of England, New York became a royal province. Pennsylvania, founded by William Penn, is an excellent example of a proprietary colony. [12] In 1704, Dutch land given to Penn by the Duke of York separated and once again became part of the Delaware Colony. Quakers, Mennonites, Lutherans, Dutch Calvinists, and Presbyterians were all represented, which made it impossible for one religion to dominate and gave a greater freedom of religion than any of the New England Colonies, with exception to Rhode Island. After joining the Dominion of New England, however, Rhode Island was permanently thought of as a New England colony. During this time, many American Indians were displaced. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. Following the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware. The most common solution was indentured servitude of young whites. The 13 Colonies. They were erroneously labeled the Pennsylvania Dutch and comprised one-third of the population by the time of the American Revolution. This land grant would become the Province of New Jersey.[4][5]. *The Middle Colonies were part of the 13 original colonies.The colonies included in the Middle Colonies were: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. While some Welsh colonists like Roger Williams, left to found Rhode Island, Anne Hutchinson founded a seed settlement in New York. The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. After Hyde was recalled to England in 1708 over charges of graft, bribery, and corruption, the governor of New York was charged to also preside over New Jersey. The Middle Colonies had rich soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. It was established by William Penn as a haven for Quakers in the New World. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. They were noted for tight-knit religious communities, which were often Lutheran. [20], The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. A system in Dutch colonial New York in which vast grants of land were given to investors, who in turn rented the lands to tenant farmers. Slavery in the British colonies Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland. Characteristics of Colonial Regions: Middle Colonies •Geography & Economy –Good Land to be Cleared, Three Major Rivers (Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna), Good Harbors –“Breadbasket” of the Colonies, trade in foodstuffs, including the Triangle Trade •Demographics –1700: Twice as many people lived in New England than the Middle Colonies Farms flourished and craftsmen established successful businesses. Pennsylvanian revolutionary sentiment continued to grow, and Philadelphia, the largest city in America, soon became the meeting place of the Continental Congress. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. Reference Maps on the American Revolution 1775-1783. It examines not only “high” matters of theology and leadership, but also elements of faith closer to the experience of the masses of worshippers. [10] Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania before departing for the colony, which called for religious tolerance towards many groups, including the Religious Society of Friends and local natives. Map of the British Colonies in North America 1763-1775 However, the death rate was very high in these colonies as many servants died before they were “acclimatized” to the region. However, the Middle Colonies, and especially Pennsylvania, had a degree of religious tolerance far greater than other British colonies. These indentured servants were the primary migrant to the British settlements of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, Jamaica and Barbados. The Middle Colonies shared the fertile land of the Southern Colonies and many large fields of wheat could be found and they shared the industry of timber and fishing. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. The Duke of York never governed the colony himself. [5], Main article: Province of Pennsylvania Chester Courthouse in Pennsylvania was built in 1724, King Charles II granted the land for the Pennsylvania Colony to William Penn on March 4, 1681 as payment for a debt the crown owed his family. One difference was their demographic makeup. 17th centuries. Estimated population in the Colonies as of the year 1700. Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. Both the poor and the middle class immigrated as indentured servants. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730, colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. [12] When the British banned western expansion in 1764, fighting among colonists and against the natives swelled. In 1683, a law was passed that all children must be taught to read and write and be trained in a useful trade. The English colonies of New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), Pennsylvania (PA) and Delaware (DE) are referred to as the 'middle colonies'. [14] When William Penn received his land grant of Pennsylvania in 1681, he received the Delaware area from the Duke of York, and dubbed them "The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River". The colonies all had similar constitutions, legal systems, and political systems in place. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. 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