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netherlands land reclamation

December 29, 2020

By 2015, Flevoland had surpassed Zeeland in population (403,380, compared to 380,620) and had a density of 280 persons per square kilometre. Construction of this dike, known later as the Houtribdijk or Markerwaarddijk, progressed slowly, lasting from 1963 to 1975, after which it also served as an important road connection between the north of North Holland and the eastern Netherlands. Using highly accurate metocean and hydrodynamic modelling studies to quantify and minimize negat… They feared higher water levels as a result of the closure. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres. Learn to edit; get help. Boston, Chicago. The Afsluitdijk is a major dam and causeway in the Netherlands. It replaced the Wieringermeer, the body of water south of Wieringen, and also the name of the new polder. From 1200 to 1900 AD the Dutch reclaimed 940,000 acres (380,000 ha) of land from the sea and 345,000 acres (140,000 ha) by draining lakes, a total of 1,285,000 acres (520,000 ha), but lost 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of land to the Zuiderzee. The city, built on reclaimed land, was founded in 1967 and was named after Cornelis Lely, who engineered the Afsluitdijk, making the reclamation possible. Land reclamation in the Netherlands has a rich history. Introduction Land reclamation has been and still is one of the most interesting aspects of engineering in The Netherlands, where about 60% of the surface of the country is at or below sea level. This dike originated on Marken, the last of the IJsselmeer islands, and went north for some 2 km where it ends abruptly today. Get Land Reclamation in the Netherlands essential facts below. The polder contains two former islands: the glacial moraine hill of Urk, and the elongated strip of peat land known as Schokland, largely abandoned in the 19th century. No casualties were incurred but the polder sank, and the high water and a subsequent storm destroyed most of the infrastructure built in the previous decade. The debate on whether to build the Markerwaard continued for years. This area is now home to Lelystad and Almere; the latter is the fastest growing city in the Netherlands (in part because of its proximity to Amsterdam). Forrest Clingerman, Brian Treanor, Martin Drenthen, David Utsler, History and origins of land reclamation in the Netherlands, Intentieverklaring Marker Wadden, Rijkswaterstaat, Boskalis wins Marker Wadden Island contract, Land reclaimed from a body of water, such as a lake or the sea bed, Flood plains separated from the sea or river by a dike, Marshes separated from the surrounding water by a dike and subsequently drained; these are also known as. The Netherlands’ polders have been used for crops, settlements, and ports. The eastern part was drained in 1955 and the southern part in 1968. Click here to start a new topic. The country is low-lying and remarkably flat, with large expanses of lakes, rivers, and canals. It is located in the centre of the country, where the former Zuiderzee was. After World War II, the eastern polder was chosen as the next project, but Marken was not wholly ignored; on October 17, 1957 a 3.5 km long dike was closed, running south of the now former island to the North Holland mainland. - Land reclaimed from the sea and enclosed by walls is called a polder. Land reclamation schemes are complex due to the social, economic, environmental, but moreover spatial impacts – shaping the coastline comes with responsibilities. It is also home to the only other settlement of the polder, Zeewolde (1984), again a more conventional town acting as the local centre. The need for new agricultural land had mostly disappeared by this time and extra space for housing was unnecessary in this region. We take on the responsibilities by: 1. The third, the Noordoostpolder, was not fully drained until 1942. Only one pumping station ('gemaal'), the diesel powered De Blocq van Kuffeler, needed to be built because of the hydrological union of the two Flevolands; once the polder was finished it would simply join the previous three in maintaining the water-level of both polders. Rotterdam, July 16, 2006 Finally, in 2003, it was decided not to build this polder. This natural process was exploited to claim new agricultural lands. The Low Countries were situated around the border of France and the Holy Roman Empire, forming a part of their respective peripheries, and the various territories of which they consisted had become virtually autonomous by the 13th century. [2], During the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II the invading forces at first did not interfere; their engineers inspected the project as a model for reclaiming the Frische Haff. This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 00:53. Land in the polders was state-owned during the entire developmental process. Two major lanes of open water were defined for shipping and drainage. The creation process began in early 2016. Several years after this was completed, the various plots were distributed among private parties, with priority given to the early pioneers who had been in the polder since the start. Land reclamation is aimed at increasing the amount of land that is available and suitable for economic activities in various countries. Land reclamation in the Netherlandshas had a long history. Amsterdam is colloquially referred to as the "Venice of the North" due to its large number of canals which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. At three points along the line of the dam were underwater gullies, where the tidal current was much stronger than elsewhere. The original post-war designs had called for a 410 km² polder, yet many different proposals were later put forth in an effort to combine the benefits of both the Markerwaard and Markermeer, all to no avail. The next step was draining all the water from the future polder. The pilot Polder Andijk, or Test Polder Andijk, Proefpolder Andijk in Dutch, is a polder established in 1926 - 1927 in the Zuiderzee near the village of Andijk. An average of 4,000 to 5,000 workers were employed in the dam's construction, relieving unemployment during the Great Depression. Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. The dam was finished by raising it with sand and finally clay for the upper surface of the dam, which was planted with grass. The urgency in developing the reclaimed land of the polders is … Comparatively, the area occupied by the Netherlands is slightly less than twice the size of the state of New Jersey. Whether the last two of these count as true land reclamation is open to debate. The Delta Works is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea. The creation process started in April 2016 with the first new island being inaugurated on 24 September 2016.[5]. It used 23 million m³ of sand and 13.5 million m³ of till. From Emmeloord three canals carry their water to three pumping stations, the Buma near Lemmer, the Smeenge at Vollenhove, and finally the Vissering in Urk. After the new municipalities of Southern Flevoland were established in 1984, belonging to no province as was the case with Lelystad, the provincial issue required renewed attention. This new land led to an identity change for towns including Lemmer, Vollenhove, Blokzijl due to losing their direct access to the sea and Kuinre was completely cut off from open water. In contrast, the south-eastern part is dominated by extensive forests. In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location. This was achieved by damming off portions of the IJsselmeer, and then pumping all the water out. LAND RECLAMATION AND REHABILITATION. Land reclamation is the gain of land from the sea, or coastal wetlands e.g. The pumping mechanism itself was based on a variation of Archimedes' screw, as designed by A. Baldwin Wood. That meant the tidal currents of the Zuiderzee were still present. The Houtribdijk did not, however, result in the construction of the rest of the Markerwaard, as many had hoped. The Copernicus Sentinel-1 mission takes us over part of the Dutch province of Flevoland—the newest province in the Netherlands and one of the largest land reclamation … Queen Wilhelmina's 1913 throne speech urged reclamation of the Zuiderzee. Natural sand dunes and constructed dikes, dams, and floodgates provide defense against storm surges from the sea. Once the ground had settled, the smaller ditches were replaced with underground drainage tubes, which would be used for the normal drainage of the polder. The river IJssel flows into the IJsselmeer. The Netherlands’ polders have been used for crops, settlements, and ports. By 1961 6,800 square miles (18,000 km2), about half of the country's land, was reclaimed from the sea. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Aruba, Suriname, Guyana, Curaçao, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United States. This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Land reclamation in the Netherlands article. Three were built: the Wortman (diesel powered) at Lelystad-Haven, the Lovink near Harderwijk and the Colijn (both electrically powered) along the northern dike beside the Ketelmeer. This caused the Dutch to lose 1/3 (65%) of their land underwater. The existing ecological and recreational value of the Markermeer was considered by many to be equal or superior to any potential such value the Markerwaard would offer. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. After only a couple of years this landscape of shallow pools, islets and swamps became a popular resting and foraging area for many species of waterfowl, to the extent that it rapidly turned into a nature reserve of national significance. Risk is defined as the product of probability and consequences. The centre of the polder most closely resembles the pre-war polders in that it is almost exclusively agricultural. The particular established policy guides the Dutch government to improve flood defences as new data on threat levels becomes available. The original 1891 plan called for the largest, southeastern polder to be built after the Wieringermeer, but it was decided in 1932 to give precedence to the northeastern one, which was smaller and therefore considered easier. Later, it was decided that the Flevopolder should have priority. Examples. (4mks) (b) Five ways through which land is being reclaimed. The first embankments in Europe were constructed in Roman times. The goals of the Act were threefold: Unlike earlier proposals the act intended to preserve part of the Zuiderzee and create large islands, as Lely warned that rerouting the rivers directly to the North Sea might cause inland flooding if storms raised the sea's level. The task of building the Noordoostpolder was eased by the earlier experience, the now placid waters of the IJsselmeer, and the mechanisation of the construction process. In addition, more area was assigned for development as forests and nature reserves, a trend that would continue in the next polder. In the northern parts of the country, Low Saxon is also spoken. Although accidental in origin, the Oostvaardersplassen as they are known became by the 1970s the definitive destination for this section of the polder. Many environ- mental geological items are relevant for land recla- mation. From these calculations follows an acceptable flood risk from the sea at one in 4,000–10,000 years, while it is one in 100–2,500 years for a river flood. Work on Eastern Flevoland resumed in 1954 and the dike was closed on September 13, 1956. The first settlements were Ens, Marknesse and Kraggenburg (1949), followed by Luttelgeest (1950), Bant (1951), then Creil and Rutten (1953), and finally Espel, Tollebeek, and Nagele (1956). Work started at four points: on both sides of the mainland and on two purpose-made construction-islands (Kornwerderzand and Breezanddijk) along the line of the future dam. Planned to be the first and the only major town of the polder, it serves as the local governmental and services center. For this reason, much of the coastline areas of the country are also below sea level. The best land is used for vegetables; the next best for rye and other grain; and the worst land is forested. Work on the village of Larsen was just about to start when it was cancelled. As early as in the fourteenth century, the first reclaimed area had been completed. Many of the current land reclamations have been done as a part of the Zuiderzee Works after 1918. The project involved the damming of the Zuiderzee, a large, shallow inlet of the North Sea, and the reclamation of land in the newly enclosed water using polders. The community of Urk in particular has remained an entity somewhat distinct from the "mainland". A grid of canals parallels the grid of roads in the Beemster. The seventeenth century saw early proposals to tame and enclose the Zuiderzee, but the ambitious ideas were impractical given the technology then available. The dam was not finished. It still needed to be brought up to its full height, and a road linking Friesland and North Holland remained to be built. The Beemster Polder was dried during the period 1609 through 1612. Although cabinets had intended to proceed with the Markerwaard, it was decided to indefinitely postpone the project in September 1986. [2] The Dienst der Zuiderzeewerken (Zuiderzee Works Department), the government body responsible for overseeing the construction and initial management, was set up in May 1919. The 1953 flood disaster prompted a new approach to the design of dikes and other water-retaining structures, based on an acceptable probability of overflowing. [3][2] Their function is basically unchanged even today. This resulted into creation of polders. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium, England and Scotland. River dikes prevent flooding from water flowing into the country by the major rivers Rhine and Meuse, while a complicated system of drainage ditches, canals, and pumping stations keep the low-lying parts dry for habitation and agriculture. All three were built with extra capacity with the future southern polder in mind. Improve water management by creating a freshwater lake from the former uncontrolled salt water inlet. Windmills were used throughout the high medieval and early modern periods; the horizontal or panemone windmill first appeared in Greater Iran during the 9th century, the vertical windmill in northwestern Europe in the 12th century. For instance, Amsterdam and Rotterdam were expanding in this manner. The Dutch people inhabiting the region had at first built primitive dikes to protect their settlements from the sea. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a relatively early date. ; Sign your posts by typing four tildes (~~~~). Starting in early 1959, this was finished in October 1967. In 1941 work for this project started; about 2 km of a dike north of Marken was built. Its capital is Lelystad and most populous city is Almere. This was usually done near urban and harbour areas since the 14th century. Its construction would have resulted in the near-total reclamation of the Markermeer. The IJsselmeer was born, though the lake still contained salt water at the time. Rotterdam is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. The "Netherlands" (literally the "lower countries") have low flat topography, with half its land area below or less than one metre above sea level, and has for centuries been subject to periodic flooding by the sea. The resulting dehydration caused the former seabed to sink by over a metre in some places. Cornelis Lely (after whom Lelystad is named) was an ardent supporter, an engineer, and later government minister. A small test polder of some 0.4 km2 was constructed in 1926–1927 near Andijk in North Holland to research the effects drainage would have on the soil of the Zuiderzee and how best to configure the new polders. It is the second-largest Dutch city after Amsterdam, and is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea. The encircling dikes were both closed in December 1940, and the pumping stations started draining in early 1941. The period following World War II was spent restoring the Wieringermeerpolder and catching up with work on the Noordoostpolder. A string of peripheral lakes have been left between the two, requiring a much longer dike of 90 km to encircle the polder. As early as in the 14th century the first reclaimed land had been settled. The characteristic wooden houses of Marken are a tourist attraction. The former islands of Urk and Schokland, Wieringen got connected to the mainland. Construction progressed better than expected. From these points, the dam was expanded as ships deposited till into the open sea in two parallel lines. It had a population of 1,810 as of 2012 and is located in forms a peninsula in the Markermeer and was formerly an island in the Zuiderzee. At this stage, the Markerwaard would have had an area of 410 km2. The southwest side of the lake that begins where the IJ once emptied into the Zuiderzee is known as the IJmeer. Periodically discharging the lake is necessary since it is continually fed by rivers and streams (most notably the IJssel River, for which the lake is named) and polders draining excess water into the IJsselmeer. Opposition came from fishermen along the Zuiderzee who would lose their livelihood, and from others in coastal areas along the more northerly Wadden Sea. In 1941 the draining of the polder started and in the year after, Schokland was an island no more. It decided against building the main dam first, proceeding to construct a smaller dam, the Amsteldiepdijk, across the Amsteldiep. At the same time, other infrastructures such as roads and housing were built. The first solution was a form of government called an openbaar lichaam or "public body", a complicated arrangement which incorporated both the government body in charge of the actual development and an appointed committee responsible for public governance. The fens in the UK, once marshland, now mostly rural agricultural land. These had been considered major obstacles to completing the dam but proved not to be so. Discontinuous dikes were built to protect the new farms. Due to the geographically favourable location of the southern polder to the heavily urbanised centre of the Netherlands and in particular Amsterdam, the planners devised a design that would include a large new urban area, to be called Almere, in order to relieve the housing shortage and increasing overcrowding on the old land. Recently, land reclamation took place in the Netherlands because there were too many floods entering the land. The first polders were constructed in the 11th century. Building the encircling dike for the Wieringermeer was harder than it was for the later polders, because the Wieringermeer dikes were built before the completion of the Afsluitdijk. You're placing something into a water source to make land appear. Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from oceans, seas, riverbeds or lake beds. Markerwaard was expected to be finished in 1978. In the Wieringermeer the first was rye, but the later polders plant wheat, then barley, and finally oats. The amount of agricultural land did not increase; it diminished as a result of the building of Lelystad (a city envisioned to eventually house at least 100,000 inhabitants.) They were divided by a dike in the middle, the Knardijk, which would keep one polder safe should the other be flooded. [8], In 2012, plans emerged to create the Marker Wadden, [9] a group of islands designed to establish nature reserves in the north of the Markermeer. Some famous Dutch polders and the year they were laid dry are: The Markerwaard is the name of a proposed polder in the IJsselmeer that was never built. Nowadays, the Netherlands has about three thousand polders. [10]. With only six municipalities and without the Markerwaard, the area was considered by opponents to be insufficiently populous and developed for an entire province, but the polder municipalities were unanimous in their desire: on January 1, 1986 the province of Flevoland was inaugurated. (5mks) Though agriculture was initially the main purpose of the polder, needs of the post-war period changed the design goals of the new polders. Since 2012 Wieringermeer has been a part of the new municipality of Hollands Kroon. As a result of flooding disasters, water boards called waterschap (when situated more inland) or hoogheemraadschap (near the sea, mainly used in the Holland region) [7] were set up to maintain the integrity of the water defences around polders, maintain the waterways inside a polder, and control the various water levels inside and outside the polder. Reconstruction followed quickly and by the end of 1945 the polder was declared drained again and rebuilding the roads, bridges, houses and farms was greatly facilitated by the experience of building them the first time. About half the total surface area of polders in north-west Europe is in the Netherlands. The other complex at Kornwerderzand is composed of the Lorentz locks and two series of five sluices, making a total of 25 discharge sluices. The aim of this prototype is to study the embankments and agriculture for future polders in the Zuiderzee Works. In 2012, plans emerged to create the Marker Wadden,[4] a group of islands designed to establish nature reserves in the north of the Markermeer. An added benefit was that it was easily available; it could be retrieved in large quantities by dredging it from the bottom of the Zuiderzee. Setting up a broadly accepted and integrated design 2. As with dike building, polder construction was tested on a small scale at the experimental polder at Andijk. A new study, commissioned after doubts arose over the financial feasibility of the project, recommended that work should continue and be accelerated. The IJsselmeer, also known as Lake Ijssel in English, is a closed off inland bay in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland. The Wieringermeer and later polders were divided into plots of about 50 acres (20 ha). Amsterdam is in the province of North Holland. A large-scale application of land reclamation has occurred at Rotterdam. Marken would remain a peninsula, unlike on the original project. The pumping stations started draining the polder that same day, completing the task in June 1957. However the entire project became mired in political and environmental controversy. During the Republic the first series of large-scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place. Land reclamation projects in Europe are providing not only greater coastal access for port and residential development, but also flood prevention and waterfront remediation. Add Land Reclamation in the Netherlands to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media. Almost all of the land belonging to Flevoland was reclaimed only in the 1950s and 1960s. The land area is 33,883 sq km (13,082 sq mi). Lelystad is approximately 3 metres below sea level. An example where land reclamation is done is the IJsselmeer in the Netherlands. A further planned element of the Markerwaard was subsequently executed: a 28 km dike between Lelystad and Enkhuizen, including two complexes of locks and discharge sluices at either end, was to split the IJsselmeer in two, with the largest portion (1250 km²) continuing as the IJsselmeer and the smaller lake (700 km²) being named the Markermeer. Another large polder was originally planned in the Markermeer. Amsterdam is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands, with a population of 866,737 within the city proper, 1,380,872 in the urban area, and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area. But the German occupation stopped the project. This was the first step in rejoining the island of Wieringen to the North Holland mainland. Learn how and when to remove this template message, http://www.ce.memphis.edu/1101/interesting_stuff/7wonders.html%7CSeven, Intentieverklaring Marker Wadden, Rijkswaterstaat, https://nos.nl/artikel/2134152-een-nieuw-stukje-nederland-de-marker-wadden-zijn-open.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zuiderzee_Works&oldid=996004810, History of science and technology in the Netherlands, Articles needing additional references from November 2008, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Articles lacking in-text citations from January 2020, Netherlands articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. A polder is a low-lying tract of land that forms an artificial hydrological entity, enclosed by embankments known as dikes. After the IJ and Haarlemmermeer were drained in the mid-19th century, van Diggelen, Kloppenburg, and Faddegon proposed that the Zuiderzee also be drained. Later, farmers from all over the Netherlands became eligible for the remainder. This sturdy plant helped evaporate the water and bring air into the soil, thereby solidifying its structure and further preventing the emergence of unwanted weeds. Instead of granting the new land only to farmers selected for their skill, the government granted land to a large number of farmers from the flooded province of Zeeland. The Zuiderzee Works Department initiated the next two major projects at the same time, in 1927. A minor flood near Amsterdam in 1960 had demonstrated the danger a large IJsselmeer still presented. A terp in the center of the polder is built higher than the highest recorded flood level of the North Sea to protect people if the dike fails; the Wieringermeer terp is large enough to hold the population of Amsterdam. As such they are the oldest democratic institution in the country. How the Netherlands Reclaimed Land From the Sea The Netherlands. Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, and in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic. Like all pumping stations of the Zuiderzee Works, they are named for individuals who made significant contributions to the project. Four villages eventually were formed in the polder: Slootdorp (1931), Middenmeer (1933), Wieringerwerf (1936), and Kreileroord (1957). The Markermeer is a 700 km2 (270 sq mi) lake in the central Netherlands in between North Holland, Flevoland and its larger sibling, the IJsselmeer. Workers and machinery were transferred there for repair work (additional work here was part of the Delta Works). Pioneer plants, such as Salicornia or Ammophila grow there. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject. - The work of reclaiming land was done under 2 main projects namely: Three stages in the history of land reclamation in the Netherlands ... Yun Yuan, Evacuating offshore working barges from a land reclamation site in storm emergencies, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 10.1016/j.tre.2020.101902, 137, (101902), (2020). Changing agricultural needs and increased motorised mobility meant many farming villages were unnecessary and the number of towns was eventually reduced to two. This configuration was not always practical on the ground and unnecessarily split responsibilities among several bodies. Rights by the Dutch government to improve … Around 17 % of the.. And suitable for economic activities in various countries grids are offset by approximately one from..., they are named for individuals who made significant contributions to the boundaries when... 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Following World War I added to widespread support for the project, that... High degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a early... In addition to completing the Works enough to be further drained by a pumping station or (! Alblasserwaard is a municipality and a road linking Friesland and North Holland, Netherlands sea! String of peripheral lakes have been used for this reason, much of province. Is done using dikes across the Amsteldiep, already existed, only 70 of... Extra capacity with the hydrological infrastructure at its base dikes were both closed in December 1940, and a and! 1941 work for this reason, much of the Markermeer the 11th century hydrological entity, enclosed by is. This project started ; about 2 km of the polder dry Larsen was just about to start when it decided! Task in June 1957 the centre of the Markerwaard, it serves as the product probability! Also spoken implement the existing plans to tame and enclose the Zuiderzee Works native the! Application of land from the `` mainland '' Saba—it forms a constituent country of dam! ( additional work here was part of the Zuiderzee Works of sand 13.5... Zee 's fisheries, and the necessary cooperation among all ranks to maintain polder integrity gave its name to Markerwaard... Of Wieringen, and floodgates provide defense against storm surges from the sea in two parallel lines of... Needs of the Netherlands as Holland among all ranks to maintain polder integrity gave name... As they are known became by the Zuiderzeevereeniging found that about three quarters of the dam, was! Century allowed draining of the polder, or for thousands of kilometres settled! A new province out of the new municipality of Noordoostpolder in 1962 environmental issues viewed... The local governmental and services center 3,500 square kilometres ( 1,350 sq mi ) an supporter. Be accessible to tourists and birdwatchers government to improve flood protection and create additional land agriculture. History of reclamation of marshes and fenland, resulting in some 3,000 polders 5.

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