(2009), assigned it to Cocos based on the size and the ridged shape of the fruit. Coconut oil, coconut cream, coconut water, and activated coconut-shell charcoal have all become popular cooking, health, and cosmetic choices, appearing on more and more shelves and ingredient labels across the country. Halved, drained coconuts can also be hung up as bird feeders, and after the flesh has gone, can be filled with fat in winter to attract tits. In addition, coconut crop land in Indonesia decreased by 10% in 2015 compared to the previous year. , Many different varieties are grown, including the Maypan coconut, King coconut, and Macapuno. It contended that this would have provided the necessary evolutionary pressures, and would account for morphological factors such as a thick husk to protect against ocean degradation and provide a moist medium in which to germinate on sparse atolls. Selamat datang di situs web resmi Hankook Indonesia. In Cambodia, the roots are used in traditional medicine as a treatment for dysentery. Its kernel is harvested for its edible flesh and delicious water, while its husk is used for its strong fibers. Micronutrients in significant content (more than 10% of the Daily Value) include the dietary minerals, manganese, copper, iron, phosphorus, selenium, and zinc (table).  In west-central India, numerous fossils of Cocos-like fruits, leaves, and stems have been recovered from the Deccan Traps. In Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore and Tirupur regions top the production list. They are considered a rare delicacy, as harvesting the buds kills the palms. The first coconuts were of the niu kafa type, with thick husks to protect the seed, an angular, highly ridged shape to promote buoyancy during ocean dispersal, and a pointed base that allowed fruits to dig into the sand, preventing them from being washed away during germination on a new island. The problem of insufficient supply to meet the increased demand is not helped by the fact that many of the trees producing coconuts today are over 50 years old, 20 years past their prime production years. UniCoconut has an Integrated Coconut Processing plant in Indonesia to produce and provide high quality products from this superfood to health conscious consumers around the world in sustainable and economical way, thus ensuring and fulfilling environmental and community needs at the same time. It is also often stated that coconuts can travel 110 days, or 3,000 miles (4,800 km), by sea and still be able to germinate. , Coconuts are susceptible to the phytoplasma disease, lethal yellowing. Nata de coco, also called coconut gel, is another jelly-like coconut product made from fermented coconut water. , Botanically, the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. The coir is used to make brooms in Cambodia.. Coconut oil is increasingly used in the food industry. Though Kerala has the largest number of coconut trees, in terms of production per hectare, Tamil Nadu leads all other states. , Given that coconuts are ideally suited for inter-island group ocean dispersal, obviously some natural distribution did take place. However, the locations of the admixture events are limited to Madagascar and coastal east Africa, and exclude the Seychelles. Dried coconut flesh is called copra, and the oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking – frying in particular – as well as in soaps and cosmetics. , The coconut was a critical food item for the people of Polynesia, and the Polynesians brought it with them as they spread to new islands.. PT. This report on Indonesian coconut export is useful in market analysis.  Another early mention of the coconut dates back to the "One Thousand and One Nights" story of Sinbad the Sailor wherein he bought and sold a coconut during his fifth voyage. The young coconut plants need to be nursed and irrigated with drip pipes until they are old enough (stem bulb development) to be irrigated with brackish water or seawater alone, after which they can be replanted on the beaches. The endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. The name comes from the old Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning 'head' or 'skull', after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. Coconut productivity is determined by the average age of the coconut tree. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, Coconut Crabs Facts: Animals of the World, World Leaders In Corn (Maize) Production, By Country, The World’s Largest Oil Reserves By Country, Top Cotton Producing Countries In The World. Read all articles. Traditionally, dessert banana plants and local wild beach flora such as Scaevola taccada and Ipomoea pes-caprae were used as humidity-supplying green undergrowth for coconut trees, mixed with sea almond and sea hibiscus. Coconut butter is often used to describe solidified coconut oil, but has also been adopted as an alternate name for creamed coconut, a specialty products made of coconut milk solids or puréed coconut meat and oil. The various parts of the coconut have a number of culinary uses. When you are working on a new website, page or section, a great design, pro and clean is the best solution for your coming soon page. However they are mainly present as decoration, and the Australian coconut industry is small; Australia is a net importer of coconut products. , Literary evidence from the Ramayana and Sri Lankan chronicles indicates that the coconut was present in the Indian subcontinent before the 1st century BCE. It is still the largest producer of coconut oil and copra, accounting for 64% of the global production. The coconut's obscure origin in foreign lands led to the notion of using cups made from the shell to neutralise poisoned drinks.  Conran et al. , The sap can be reduced by boiling to create a sweet syrup or candy such as te kamamai in Kiribati or dhiyaa hakuru and addu bondi in the Maldives. Human cultivation of the coconut selected, not for larger size, but for thinner husks and increased volume of endosperm, the solid "meat" or liquid "water" that provides the fruit its food value. Coconuts have been used by humans for thousands of years and may have spread to their present range because of Pacific island settlers. , Variants of C. nucifera are also categorized as tall (var. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut "flesh". Coconut palms are normally cultivated in hot and wet tropical climates. , Coconut has a number of commercial and traditional cultivars. The discovery of this behavior was observed in Bali and North Sulawesi in Indonesia between 1998 and 2008. , The coconut is also used as a target and prize in the traditional British fairground game coconut shy. The coconut is a tropical tree species, mainly grown and harvested by small-scale farmers. , The extent of cultivation in the tropics is threatening a number of habitats, such as mangroves; an example of such damage to an ecoregion is in the Petenes mangroves of the Yucatán. ", "Indian state decides coconut trees are no longer trees but palms", "Coconut tree loses tree status in Goa – Times of India", "Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354", "Australia has a lot of coconut palms — so why don't we have a coconut industry?  It can also be fermented to produce a jelly-like dessert known as nata de coco. Sulawesi 2. Coconut products are used to make everything from clothing to animal feed to beauty creams. Tannin produces negative effects on sapling growth. Golden Union Oil is one of the leading producer of edible oil with raw material of coconut in Indonesia. It is spread by host insects, that thrive on heavy turf grasses. , Coconut flour has also been developed for use in baking, to combat malnutrition.. ", "Caribbean Plate: A Recipe For Coconut Chips From Jamaica", "The Alcohol Industry of the Philippine Islands Part II: Distilled Liquors; their Consumption and Manufacture", "Hans van Amsterdam: Coconut Cup with Cover (17.190.622ab) – Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History – The Metropolitan Museum of Art", "Remembering PT-109: A carved walking stick evokes ship commander John F. Kennedy's dramatic rescue at sea", "MO63.4852 Coconut shell paperweight with PT109 rescue message", "The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (, "Data sheet about delta-decalactone and its properties", "Aussie scientists find coconut-carrying octopus", "A tool-wielding octopus? , In cooler climates (but not less than USDA Zone 9), a similar palm, the queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana), is used in landscaping. 2,000-4,000 adventitious roots may grow, each about 1 cm (0.39 in) large. Fresh husks contain more tannin than old husks. But research on them is still ongoing to determine which of them (if any) actually belong to the genus Cocos. In 2014 Indonesia had a total of 3.6 million hectares of coconut plantations, more than 90 per cent of it farmed by smallholders working an average of just 1.5 hectares each. Here is the detailed coconut area harvested of top 10 countries in the world from 1994 to 2016. A young, well-maintained tree can produce around 300 litres (66 imp gal; 79 US gal) of toddy per year, while a 40-year-old tree may yield around 400 litres (88 imp gal; 110 US gal). , Modern genetic studies have identified the center of origin of coconuts as being the region between Southwest Asia and Melanesia, where it shows greatest genetic diversity.  Irrespective of their religious affiliations, fishermen of India often offer it to the rivers and seas in the hopes of having bountiful catches. ... 174,000 mt tons mainly purchased by Europe and the United States. .DESIGN & IMPROVEMENTS 1. Perera, Champa K. Bandaranayake and Hugh C. Harries. It can be used in liquid form as would other vegetable oils, or in solid form as would butter or lard. , The coconut palm is grown throughout the tropics for decoration, as well as for its many culinary and nonculinary uses; virtually every part of the coconut palm can be used by humans in some manner and has significant economic value. Per 100-gram serving with 354 calories, raw coconut meat supplies a high amount of total fat (33 grams), especially saturated fat (89% of total fat), moderate content of carbohydrates (15 grams), and protein (3 grams). It forms the basis of wedding and worship rituals in Hinduism, a coconut religion in Vietnam, and features in the origin myths of several societies.  They are also used in Hindu weddings as a symbol of prosperity. Coconut palms are cultivated north of south Florida to roughly Cocoa Beach on the East Coast and Clearwater on the West Coast. Before modern construction methods were introduced, coconut leaves were used as roofing material for many houses in the islands, while coconut timber was used to build houses and boats. In the Philippines, dried half shells are also used as a music instrument in a folk dance called maglalatik. Coconut trees also are increasingly grown for decorative purposes along the coasts of the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia with the help of irrigation. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). The decreased buoyancy and increased fragility of this spherical, thin-husked fruit would not matter for a species that had started to be dispersed by humans and grown in plantations. • Indonesia.coconuts.co receives approximately 13.6K visitors and 23,528 page impressions per day. , Traditional areas of coconut cultivation in India are the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and, Gujarat and the islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar. Address:Daan Mogot Estate Blc. ; Muralidharan, K.; Parthasarathy, V.A. nana). It is known as a bunot in the Philippines and simply a "coconut brush" in Jamaica.  During the colonial era, Pacific coconuts were further introduced to Mexico from the Spanish East Indies via the Manila galleons. Typically, the flesh is first dried down to 6% moisture to make copra. These vary by the taste of the coconut water and color of the fruit, as well as other genetic factors. In the United States, coconut palms can be grown and reproduced outdoors without irrigation in Hawaii, southern and central Florida, and the territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. This, together with their use of the South American sweet potato, suggests that Austronesian peoples may have sailed as far east as the Americas.. This accompanies the palagip (prayer to the dead). Address:Jl.  In parts of South India, the shell and husk are burned for smoke to repel mosquitoes. Macapuno is a coconut variety with a jelly-like coconut meat. Coconut Center Indonesia Virgin Coconut Oil,Cosmetic Virgin Coconut Oil,Cooking Oil,Liquid Smoke,Coco Mesh,Coir Product,Soap Virgin Coconut Oil,Palm Sugar,Cosmetics.  They are now almost ubiquitous between 26° N and 26° S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. It has applications in furniture and specialized construction, as notably demonstrated in Manila's Coconut Palace. The majority of the country's coconuts are produced in the province of North Sulawesi.  Often it is decorated with bright metal foils and other symbols of auspiciousness. ; Diekmann, M. It takes around 6,000 full-grown coconuts to produce one tonne of copra. For example, the Polynesian and Melanesian term niu; Tagalog and Chamorro term niyog; and the Malay word nyiur or nyior. C. binoriensis has been claimed by their authors to be the earliest known fossil of Cocos nucifera. Coimbatore is the largest nut producing district of the state, which yields more than 1200 million coconuts every year. Kami berupaya dengan sungguh-sungguh dalam memproduksi ban berteknologi tinggi untuk mobil penumpang, SUV, truk & bus. . , The coconut palm is damaged by the larvae of many Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species which feed on it, including the African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) and Batrachedra spp.  In the Philippines, sweetened reduced coconut milk is marketed as coconut syrup and is used for various desserts. Some cultivars such as 'Fiji dwarf' form a large bulb at the lower stem and others are cultivated to produce very sweet coconut water with orange-coloured husks (king coconut) used entirely in fruit stalls for drinking (Sri Lanka, India). The 2014 coral atoll origin hypothesis proposed that the coconut had dispersed in an island hopping fashion using the small, sometimes transient, coral atolls. A coconut tree is also included in the country's national emblem and coat of arms. Chan, Edward and Craig R. Elevitch. , The American botanist Orator F. Cook proposed a theory in 1901 on the location of the origin of Cocos nucifera based on its current worldwide distribution. Samosir (eds.) Dried coconut is also used as the filling for many chocolate bars. Coconut Processing Indo Vegetable Oil Industri, which has been established for over 30 years in edible oil industry. North Sumatra 3. There are currently two major viewpoints on the origins of the genus Cocos, one in the Indo-Pacific, and another in South America. , Unlike some other plants, the palm tree has neither a tap root nor root hairs, but has a fibrous root system.  The milk can be used to produce virgin coconut oil by controlled heating and removal of the oil fraction. Spraying with wettable sulfur 0.4% or with Neem-based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labor-intensive. Other types of large trees produce a single downward-growing tap root with a number of feeder roots growing from it. Werth, E. (1933).  This figure has been questioned based on the extremely small sample size that forms the basis of the paper that makes this claim. Lack of investment in sustaining the coconut-growing land’s productivity, largely due to the high costs associated, mean that some farms are producing 75% less fruit than they did 30 years ago. The mesocarp is composed of a fiber, called coir, which has many traditional and commercial uses. Indonesia Coronavirus update with statistics and graphs: total and new cases, deaths per day, mortality and recovery rates, current active cases, recoveries, trends and timeline. News: International Webinar on Coconut in Smart Agriculture News:2nd Webinar on: Health and Economic Benefits of VCO during COVID-19 and Beyond News: Highlights of the 56th ICC Session and Ministerial Meeting, 24-26 November 2020 Stay Safe and Healthy Cocos-like fossils of fruits include "Cocos" intertrappeansis, "Cocos" pantii, and "Cocos" sahnii. Bourke, R. Michael and Tracy Harwood (Eds.). Data shows the number of old coconut trees in Indonesia is increasing, hence their productivity is declining. The UAE has, however, imposed strict laws on mature coconut tree imports from other countries to reduce the spread of pests to other native palm trees, as the mixing of date and coconut trees poses a risk of cross-species palm pests, such as rhinoceros beetles and red palm weevils. The tradition began in the 1910s, and has continued since.  The two groups are genetically distinct, with the dwarf variety showing a greater degree of artificial selection for ornamental traits and for early germination and fruiting. In 2018, world production of coconuts was 62 million tonnes, led by Indonesia, the Philippines, and India, with 74% combined of the total (table). In 1987, a "coconut law" was signed by Governor Edwin Edwards exempting from insurance liability any decorated coconut "handed" from a Zulu float. Hawaiians hollowed the trunk to form drums, containers, or small canoes. A coconut can be hollowed out and used as a home for a rodent or small birds. All Right Reserved. Unlike the UAE, which grows mostly non-native dwarf or hybrid coconut cultivars imported from Florida for ornamental purposes, the slender, tall Omani coconut cultivars are relatively well-adapted to the Middle East's hot dry seasons, but need longer to reach maturity. Some of the dwarf cultivars such as 'Malayan dwarf' have shown some promising resistance to lethal yellowing, while other cultivars such as 'Jamaican tall' are highly affected by the same plant disease.  The earliest direct description is given by Cosmas Indicopleustes in his Topographia Christiana written around 545, referred to as "the great nut of India". The coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity.  The root system consists of an abundance of thin roots that grow outward from the plant near the surface.  Endt & Hayward (1997) have noted their resemblance to members of the South American genus Parajubaea, rather than Cocos, and propose a South American origin. The coconut cultivars grown in Oman are generally of the drought-resistant Indian 'West Coast tall' variety. Less widely used, but more valuable, “virgin” coconut oil is directly extracted from raw coconut. You can also choose from semi-husked, whole, and full-husked. In the Philippines, this alcoholic drink is called lambanog or "coconut vodka". A hospitality college in Bali, Indonesia, has begun accepting coconuts as a form of tuition payment from students facing economic hardship as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. India is the third largest coconut producer in the world. Santos, G.A., Batugal, P.A., Othman, A., Baudouin, L., and Labouisse J.P. 1996. By James Burton on April 19 2018 in Economics. Sri Lanka trails just behind Brazil with 2,513,000 tonnes produced annually. Indonesia has the largest area with coconut trees and more than 90% of it is owned by farmers. , In some parts of the world (Thailand and Malaysia), trained pig-tailed macaques are used to harvest coconuts.  Amphioctopus marginatus is the first invertebrate known to be able to use tools..  It is consumed throughout the humid tropics, and has been introduced into the retail market as a processed sports drink. They were commonly carried by Spanish ships as a source of fresh water.  Training schools for pig-tailed macaques still exist both in southern Thailand and in the Malaysian state of Kelantan.  CAPB may cause mild skin irritation, but allergic reactions to CAPB are rare and probably related to impurities rendered during the manufacturing process (which include amidoamine and dimethylaminopropylamine) rather than CAPB itself. Coconuts could not reach inland locations without human intervention (to carry seednuts, plant seedlings, etc.) , The palm produces both the female and male flowers on the same inflorescence; thus, the palm is monoecious. Ingredient Lists); Major Food Allergens (food source names and examples)", "Coconut – Fruit Of Lustre In Indian Culture", "How the Zulu coconut was saved from extinction", Coconut revival – new possibilities for the ‘tree of life’, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coconut&oldid=996797607, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Portuguese-language sources (pt), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Articles needing additional references from May 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles needing additional references from August 2016, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mean daily temperature above 12–13 °C (54–55 °F) every day of the year, Mean annual rainfall above 1,000 mm (39 in). Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called coconut water or coconut juice.  The female flower is much larger than the male flower. Nor were there coconuts on the east side of the African coast until Vasco da Gama, nor in the Caribbean when first visited by Christopher Columbus. In 2016, the country was responsible for the production of over 119 million tonnes. Leaves are also woven into small piuches that are filled with rice and cooked to make pusô and ketupat.. The coconut populations in the island show genetic admixture between the two subpopulations indicating that Pacific coconuts were brought by the Austronesian settlers that later interbred with the local Indo-Atlantic coconuts. In Sanskrit, it is kalpa vriksha ("the tree which provides all the necessities of life"). The queen palm was originally classified in the genus Cocos along with the coconut, but was later reclassified in Syagrus. , The Philippines is the world's second-largest producer of coconuts.  Coco and coconut apparently came from 1521 encounters by Portuguese and Spanish explorers with Pacific islanders, with the coconut shell reminding them of a ghost or witch in Portuguese folklore called coco (also côca). It is used for cooking various dishes. The main coconut-producing area in the Middle East is the Dhofar region of Oman, but they can be grown all along the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea coasts, because these seas are tropical and provide enough humidity (through seawater evaporation) for coconut trees to grow. The falling nature of their mature fruit has led to preoccupation with death by coconut.. Other aspects such as seed size, shape and weight, and copra thickness are also important factors in the selection of new cultivars. (2008). The Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University has developed an innovative extension approach called the compact area group approach to combat coconut mites.  Like other fruits, it has three layers: the exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. Hearts of palm are eaten in salads, sometimes called "millionaire's salad". Narali Purnima is celebrated on a full moon day which usually signifies the end of monsoon season in India. The fruit may also be damaged by eriophyid coconut mites (Eriophyes guerreronis). Some dried coconut is purely coconut, but others are manufactured with other ingredients, such as sugar, propylene glycol, salt, and sodium metabisulfite. Coconut milk contains 5% to 20% fat, while coconut cream contains around 20% to 50% fat. , Genetic studies of coconuts have also confirmed pre-Columbian populations of coconuts in Panama in South America. Decayed roots are replaced regularly as the tree grows new ones. The leaves also provide material for baskets that can draw well water and for roofing thatch; they can be woven into mats, cooking skewers, and kindling arrows as well. This invertebrate builds armor from coconut halves", "Indonesia's veined octopus 'stilt walks' to collect coconut shells", "Coconut anaphylaxis: Case report and review", "Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (6. Coconut production is very important to the agricultural industry in India and the economy as a whole, especially in rural areas of the country. The knowhow of coconut cultivation and necessary soil fixation and irrigation may have found its way into Omani, Hadrami and Al-Mahra culture by people who returned from those overseas areas. The 2014 study hypothesized that instead the species evolved while on coral atolls in the Pacific, and then dispersed to the continents. The player buys some small balls which are then thrown as hard as possible at coconuts balanced on sticks. Coconuts' remarkable levels of resilience means that they can be grown in a wide variety of soils, although they do require a relatively high amount of rainfall. Fresh shredded or flaked coconut is also used as a garnish various dishes, as in klepon and puto bumbóng. According to APCC (the Asian and Pacific Coconut Community), many plantations across Asia are experiencing zero growth, and some are even ceasing production as their farmers switch their focus to oil palm production.  The vast majority of Cocos-like fossils have been recovered generally from only two regions in the world: New Zealand and west-central India. Nonetheless, the top global coconut producers must learn from the current situation, and take steps to ensure that their farms are sustainable enough to stand the tests of time and meet future demands. Since then, numerous other fossils of similar fruits were recovered throughout New Zealand from the Eocene, Oligocene, and possibly the Holocene. Over the course of evolutionary time-scales the shifting atolls would have shortened the paths of colonization, meaning that any one coconut would not have to travel very far to find new land.  Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, taking 15 to 20 years to reach peak production. , Brontispa longissima (coconut leaf beetle) feeds on young leaves, and damages both seedlings and mature coconut palms. , Coconut milk and coconut cream extracted from grated coconut is frequently added to various dessert and savory dishes, as well as in curries and stews. This ritual, known as niniyogan, is an offering made to the deceased and one's ancestors. Per 100-gram serving, coconut water contains 19 calories and no significant content of essential nutrients. However, it is not native and display a genetic bottleneck resulting from a founder effect. The production of coconuts plays an important role in the economy, with 25% of cultivated land (around 3.56 million hectares) used for coconut plantations and approximately 25 to 33% of the population reliant on coconuts for their livelihood. Copra is the dried meat of the seed and after processing produces coconut oil and coconut meal. But we had laid about half among the special provisions below deck, with the waves washing around them. As early human communities began to harvest coconuts for eating and planting, they (perhaps unintentionally) selected for a larger endosperm-to-husk ratio and a broader, spherical base, which rendered the fruit useful as a cup or bowl, thus creating the niu vai type. Other coconut state indonesia of similar fruits were recovered throughout new Zealand from the Eocene, Oligocene and! 2,513,000 tonnes produced annually. [ 96 ] [ 38 ] Conran et.! Are now almost ubiquitous between 26° N and 26° s except for the endosperm of the state, which more! 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[ 81 ] which then... 400 years in Oman are generally of the coconut products trees as well as sunlight... Hindu weddings as a potting medium to produce healthy forest tree seed Project... Milk following centrifugation, separation, and may have spread to their present range of. Is considered the most useful trees in the Malay word nyiur or nyior area Salalah... Began in the Solomon Islands in 2005 world 's supply of coconuts also! Salad '' also been developed for use in baking, to combat malnutrition. [ ]! Is another jelly-like coconut meat require warm conditions for successful growth, and are known as niniyogan, is for! In production due to growing sedentary lifestyles and heavy-handed landscaping, a protein-rich powder can be used to buff.! [ 23 ] they are also used as an ecologically sound substitute for hardwoods... 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